Service Security

GeoServer supports access control at the service level, allowing for the locking down of service operations to only authenticated users who have been granted a particular role. There are two main categories of services in GeoServer. The first is OWS services such as WMS and WFS. The second are RESTful services, such as the GeoServer REST Configuration.

Note

Service-level security and Layer security cannot be combined. For example, it is not possible to specify access to a specific OWS service only for one specific layer.

OWS services

OWS services support setting security access constraints globally for a particular service, or to a specific operation within that service. A few examples include:

  • Securing the entire WFS service so only authenticated users have access to all WFS operations.
  • Allowing anonymous access to read-only WFS operations such as GetCapabilities, but securing write operations such as Transaction.
  • Disabling the WFS service in effect by securing all operations and not applying the appropriate roles to any users.

OWS service security access rules are specified in a file named services.properties, located in the security directory in the GeoServer data directory. The file contains a list of rules that map service operations to defined roles. The syntax for specifying rules is as follows:

<service>.<operation|*>=<role>[,<role2>,...]

The parameters include:

  • []—Denotes optional parameters
  • |—Denotes “or”
  • service—Identifier of an OGC service, such as wfs, wms, or wcs
  • operation—Any operation supported by the service, examples include GetFeature for WFS, GetMap for WMS, * for all operations
  • role[,role2,...]—List of predefined role names

Note

It is important that roles specified are actually linked to a user, otherwise the whole service/operation will be accessible to no one except for the Root account. However in some cases this may be the desired effect.

The default service security configuration in GeoServer contains no rules and allows any anonymous user to access any operation of any service. The following are some examples of desired security restrictions and the corresponding rules.

Securing the entire WFS service

This rule grants access to any WFS operation only to authenticated users that have been granted the ROLE_WFS role:

wfs.*=ROLE_WFS

Anonymous WFS access only for read-only operations

This rule grants anonymous access to all WFS operations (such as GetCapabilities and GetFeature) but restricts Transaction requests to authenticated users that have been granted the ROLE_WFS_WRITE role:

wfs.Transaction=ROLE_WFS_WRITE

Securing data-accessing WFS operations and write operations

Used in conjunction, these two rules grant anonymous access to GetCapabilities and DescribeFeatureType, forcing the user to authenticate for the GetFeature operation (must be granted the ROLE_WFS_READ role), and to authenticate to perform transactions (must be granted the ROLE_WFS_WRITE role:

wfs.GetFeature=ROLE_WFS_READ
wfs.Transaction=ROLE_WFS_WRITE

Note this example does not specify whether a user accessing Transactions would also have access to GetFeature.

REST services

In addition to providing the ability to secure OWS services, GeoServer also allows for the securing of RESTful services.

REST service security access rules are specified in a file named rest.properties, located in the security directory of the GeoServer data directory. This file contains a list of rules mapping request URIs to defined roles. The rule syntax is as follows:

<uriPattern>;<method>[,<method>,...]=<role>[,<role>,...]

The parameters include:

  • []—Denote optional parameters
  • uriPattern—The ant pattern that matches a set of request URIs
  • method—HTTP request method, one of GET, POST, PUT, POST, DELETE, or HEAD
  • role—Name of a predefined role. The wildcard * is used to indicate all users, including anonymous users.

Note

  • URI patterns should account for the first component of the rest path, usually rest or api
  • method and role lists should not contain any spaces

Ant patterns

Ant patterns are commonly used for pattern matching directory and file paths. The following examples provide some basic instructions. The Apache ant user manual contains more sophisticated use cases.

These examples are specific to GeoServer REST Configuration, but any RESTful GeoServer service could be configured in the same manner.

Disabling anonymous access to services

The most secure of configurations is one that forces any request, REST or otherwise, to be authenticated. The following will lock down access to all requests to users that are granted the ROLE_ADMINISTRATOR role:

/**;GET,POST,PUT,DELETE=ROLE_ADMINISTRATOR

A less restricting configuration locks down access to operations under the path /rest to users granted the ROLE_ADMINISTRATOR role, but will allow anonymous access to requests that fall under other paths (for example /api):

/rest/**;GET,POST,PUT,DELETE=ROLE_ADMINISTRATOR

Allowing anonymous read-only access

The following configuration grants anonymous access when the GET method is used, but forces authentication for a POST, PUT, or DELETE method:

/**;GET=IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY
/**;POST,PUT,DELETE=TRUSTED_ROLE

Securing a specific resource

The following configuration forces authentication for access to a particular resource (in this case the states feature type):

/rest/**/states*;GET=TRUSTED_ROLE
/rest/**;POST,PUT,DELETE=TRUSTED_ROLE

The following secures access to a set of resources (in this case all data stores).:

/rest/**/datastores/*;GET=TRUSTED_ROLE
/rest/**/datastores/*.*;GET=TRUSTED_ROLE
/rest/**;POST,PUT,DELETE=TRUSTED_ROLE

Note the trailing wildcards /* and /*.*.